In 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit New York City with a 3.4-meter storm tide, causing over $19 billion in damage. Although there are now several programs to guide rebuilding and resiliency efforts, few adaptation projects have come to fruition, says Robert Freudenberg, an environmental planner with the Regional Plan Association in New York City. In March, the New York City Panel on Climate Change released a report and new flooding maps. In May, the city’s Office of Emergency Management began installing sandbags around lower Manhattan as a temporary measure to protect the waterfront while more permanent solutions are considered.
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